The conjunctiva is the clear mucous membrane layer covering the white portion of the eye. It extends under the eyelid where it turns back and becomes the underneath mucous membrane lining of the upper and lower lids. When this membrane becomes inflamed, it is called conjunctivitis.
Symptoms of conjunctivitis can include: discharge from the eyesincreased tearingitchy eyesred, puffy eyes
Symptoms vary, depending on the cause. For instance, a colored discharge from the eye usually indicates a bacterial infection. However, when itching and tearing are the main symptoms, allergies are the most likely cause. With viral conjunctivitis, there is usually no discharge, but there may be redness and tearing.
Conjunctivitis can be caused by a number of factors, including: allergiesbacterial, viral, and fungal infectionschemicals or fumesforeign matter that gets under the eyelidirritation from contact lenses
Conjunctivitis cannot always be prevented. Some helpful measures include: avoiding makeup, towels, linens, and other objects from an infected individualpracticing good lid hygiene, by rubbing the eyelids without soap under the water stream when showeringusing good handwashing when coming into contact with a child or adult who has conjunctivitisusing safety glasses during work or hobbies in which debris is flying around in the air
Diagnosis of conjunctivitis begins with a medical history and physical exam. The healthcare professional may use a slit-lamp microscope to examine the eye. This instrument magnifies the surface of the eye.
If the infection spreads to the eyelids, more serious problems such as cellulitis could occur. Cellulitis is an infection that can lead to abscesses, or pus pockets, and tissue destruction. Cellulitis following conjunctivitis may occur in children and is accompanied by high fever. It is very rare in adults.
Some forms of conjunctivitis are contagious from person to person.
Cultures are rarely indicated except in the new born or those with frankly purulent discharge.
Antibiotic eye drops or ointments are used for conjunctivitis caused by a bacterial infection. Fourth generation fluoroquinolones are rarely indicated. Neomycin should be avoided because of the high incidence of dermatitis.
Eye drops containing antihistamines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or corticosteroids can be used if allergies are the cause,
Oral antibiotics are rarely indicated except in children with cellulitis.
If foreign matter from under the lids has caused the inflammation, it should be removed.
Eye drops may cause irritation or an allergic reaction. Antibiotics may cause stomach upset, rash, or allergic reaction.
Most of the time, conjunctivitis clears up without any further problems in seven to ten days.
Any new or worsening symptoms should be reported to the healthcare professional.