Ear wax blockage is a common complaint that usually causes no serious effects. It involves wax buildup that produces a sensation of fullness in the ear, and possibly partial deafness.
Ear wax is produced all the time in the ear. This wax helps to form a protective coating around the skin in the ear canal. The ear canal is designed to clean itself. Usually, ear wax will generally move outward during chewing and with the growth of the ear canal lining. Every day or two, a person may notice a little wax at the opening of the ear. In some people, the wax may build up.
Those with wax blockage may notice: flakes or crusts of wax falling out of the eara feeling of fullness in the eardulled hearing
Some people produce more ear wax than others do. Those with narrow ear canals may be more prone to wax blockage. The condition causes no risks other than a short-term dulled sense of hearing in some people.
Usually, nothing can be done to prevent the first episode of ear wax blockage. Those who have repeated episodes of wax blockage can use treatment to prevent future blockage. Using wax softening drops once or twice per week can often prevent future wax blockage.
In most cases, a healthcare professional can confirm the diagnosis by looking into the ear with an otoscope. Some cases require the use of a special tool to look deeper into the ear canal in order to see the wax.
There are no long-term effects. When left alone, this condition will often go away on its own.
There are no risks to others.
Eardrops are available at most pharmacies. These drops soften the wax and often cause it to fall out on its own. In more resistant or bothersome cases, an ear syringe may be used to remove wax blockage. This involves squirting lukewarm water into the ear. The water can dislodge the wax and cause it to fall out. Usually, eardrops are used first to soften the wax. Other devices are available in some areas, but should be discussed with a healthcare provider. Cotton swabs such as Q-tips should not be used.
Some eardrops may cause inflammation of the ear canal, especially if used more than twice per week. Slight dizziness may occur after using an ear syringe, but this goes away quickly. Cotton swabs may push wax deeper into the ear canal and cause infection. They should not be used at home.
Those with a ruptured or perforated eardrum, repeated ear infections, or previous ear surgery such as ear tube insertion should avoid using an ear syringe. Such people should discuss wax blockage with their healthcare professional before treating it at home.
The wax blockage is usually removed and people no longer have symptoms.
Symptoms and physical exam can be used to monitor this condition. If a person has no symptoms, no monitoring is needed.
Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 1996, Behrman et al.
Your Child's Health, Barton D. Schmitt, M.D., F.A.A.P. 1991