An electrical injury occurs when the skin or internal organs are exposed to electric current.
The signs and symptoms of an electrical injury can vary depending on the type and amount of current but may include: fatiguebone fracturesburns on the skinhearing impairmentarrhythmia, or irregular heartbeatheart attacklack of breathing, or sometimes very fast breathingloss of reflex controlmuscle crampsmuscle painconfusionamnesia, or memory lossloss of consciousnessvisual impairment
The human body conducts electricity very well. Direct contact with an electrical current can be fatal. Although the cause of an electrical injury is often obvious, these injuries can be overlooked at the time they occur. Sometimes very severe electrical shocks look minor. Outwardly, the shock may only cause small burns. However, internal damage can be very serious.
The most easily damaged organs are the heart and the brain. Cardiac arrest, which occurs when the heart stops beating, can occur if the beating mechanism of the heart is affected. There can also be significant muscle destruction from the current passing through the body.
Electrical injuries commonly occur when: young children bite or chew on electrical appliances or cordsyoung children poke an object, a finger, or other part of the body into an electrical outlet
Anyone may be injured by: accidental contact with exposed parts of electric appliances or wiringelectrical flashes from high-voltage power lineselectric machineslightning
Some electrical injuries in children can be avoided by: using safety plugs in all outletskeeping electric cords out of the reach of childrenteaching children about the dangers of electricity
Everyone should avoid electrical hazards at home and work by: making sure there are no electric lines in the way when working with ladders, poles, or other tall objectsnot using electric appliances while showering or wetnever touching electric appliances while touching faucets or cold water pipes in the kitchennot working on electric appliances in the house without knowing how to do the wiring and remembering to turn off all of the electricity firstusing common sense and looking around carefully when working with electricity
An electrical injury is diagnosed if a person reports being shocked or is seen getting shocked.
First aid treatment for electrical injury includes the following: If possible, shut off the electric current by unplugging the cord, removing the appropriate fuse from the fuse box, or turning off the circuit breakers.Do not touch the person with bare hands while he or she is still in contact with the electrical source. If the current cannot be turned off, an object that does not conduct electricity can be used to push the source of the current away from the person or to push the person away from the source. A broom, chair, rug, or something rubber is a good choice. A wet object or a metal object would probably conduct electricity, causing the helper to get shocked.Try to move the person while standing on something dry that does not conduct electricity. Failing to follow these measures can injure the helper.Check for signs of circulation, such as normal breathing, coughing, or movement in response to stimulation.Contact the emergency medical system immediately.Start cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, if the person stops breathing. Use 15 chest compressions for every 2 mouth-to-mouth rescue breaths.Stay with the person until medical help arrives.Avoid moving the victim's head or neck after laying him or her down. The neck and back should not be bent unless the rescuer is certain that there are no other major injuries.
The chest compressions of CPR can cause vomiting, injuries to internal organs, or broken ribs. Vomiting can be a problem if the vomit is caught in the airway and inhaled into the lungs.
Moving a person to treat him or her can cause further damage if there is an internal injury, such as a fractured vertebrae, which is a break in the bone that surrounds the spinal cord.
A person who receives an electrical injury should be seen by a healthcare professional. It is important to check for injury to body organs such as the brain and heart.