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Exfoliative Dermatitis

Alternate Names

  • erythroderma
  • Exfoliative dermatitis

Definition

Exfoliative dermatitis is the term for large areas of skin that are covered by a rash. It can be life-threatening in its most severe form.

What is going on in the body?

Exfoliative dermatitis is caused by any of several underlying conditions. This underlying condition may be a skin disorder or it may be something totally unrelated to the skin.

Risks

What are the causes and risks of the condition?

The causes of exfoliative dermatitis include:
  • certain medications, such as penicillin, sulfonamides, isoniazid, phenytoin, and barbiturates
  • skin diseases, such as psoriasis
  • lymphomas, or cancers of the lymph nodes
In many cases, no cause can be found.

Prevention

What can be done to prevent the condition?

A person who is taking a medication that could be causing the dermatitis may be advised by the healthcare professional to stop taking that medication.

Diagnosed

How is the condition diagnosed?

The diagnosis of exfoliative dermatitis is made when the healthcare professional examines the affected skin. It is important that this condition be diagnosed early, so that complications such as infection can be avoided. Early diagnosis can also keep the fluid and protein loss from becoming life-threatening.

Long Term Effects

What are the long-term effects of the condition?

If it is not treated, exfoliative dermatitis can cause dehydration if a lot of water and protein is lost through the skin. A person may become increasingly ill and may even experience congestive heart failure.

Other Risks

What are the risks to others?

There are no risks to others, as exfoliative dermatitis is not contagious.

Treatments

What are the treatments for the condition?

Treatment for exfoliative dermatitis may include:
  • thorough and complete skin care, including cool compresses and creams, such as Vaseline or Eucerin, to help hydrate and seal the skin and keep in water
  • antibiotics to treat infection
  • fluids given through an intravenous line to replace the lost fluid and electrolytes
  • corticosteroids given through an intravenous line, by mouth, or applied to the skin to decrease the swelling and redness
  • controlling body temperature, using heated blankets

Side Effects

What are the side effects of the treatments?

Antibiotics may cause stomach upset, diarrhea, and an allergic reaction. Corticosteroids that are given through the veins or by mouth can lead to osteoporosis, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other serious problems.

After Treatment

What happens after treatment for the condition?

Treatment of exfoliative dermatitis is focused on clearing up the skin rash. The underlying cause of the skin disease also must be treated to prevent the rash from returning.

Monitor

How is the condition monitored?

Any new or worsening symptoms should be reported to the healthcare professional.

Sources

The Merck Manual of Medical Information, 1997

Hill, Marcia J. Skin Disorders: Mosby's Clinical Nursing Series, 1994

Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 1998, Fauci et al.

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