Pregnancy is the process of childbearing. Measured from the start of a woman's last normal menstrual period, or LMP, it usually lasts about 40 weeks, or roughly 9 calendar months.
A woman can learn if she is pregnant within a few weeks after an egg is fertilized during conception. Pregnancy tests check for rising levels of a specific hormone. Home pregnancy tests may be done on urine. Tests done at a lab may use urine or blood.
The fertilized egg is called an embryo for the first 8 weeks. After that it is called a fetus or an unborn child. Its links to the mother appear quite early. The placenta, also known as the afterbirth, begins to form the moment the embryo attaches to the lining of the uterus. It grows inside the uterus, or womb, between the uterine wall and the developing child. The placenta is the channel through which oxygen, nutrients, drugs, hormones, and other substances pass from mother to her unborn child. Waste products from the fetus cross back through the placenta to the mother and are disposed of by the mother's kidneys.The umbilical cord links the unborn child to the placenta. The spot at which the umbilical cord connects to the unborn child will become its navel, or belly button
During the first trimester, growth and development of the unborn child inside the mother causes many changes to occur. A woman may notice: no period or a light periodblue lines under the skin over her breasts and abdomenwaistline expansionbreasts that grow largerprotruding nipples
Other common signs of early pregnancy in women include: nausea sometimes coupled with vomiting known as morning sicknessfood aversions and cravingsheartburn and indigestionfatiguetender breastscomplexion problemsa need to urinate oftenconstipationheadaches, dizziness, or faintness
In the unborn child: the heart begins to beatbones appear and the head, arms, fingers, legs, and toes formmajor organs and the nervous system formthe placenta formshair starts to grow20 buds for future teeth appear
By the end of the first trimester, the unborn child is about 4 inches long and weighs just a bit more than 1 ounce. While many pregnancies run into no trouble during this time, problems can occur: 10 in 1,000 pregnancies occur outside the womb. Usually the embryo finds a home in one of the fallopian tubes on its way to the uterus. This is known as an ectopic pregnancy.1 in 3 pregnancies ends in miscarriage, often in the early weeks
During the first trimester of pregnancy, monitoring may include: First month: full physical examination and testing. These tests include a Pap smear, blood tests, urinalysis, TB test, and others.Second month: weight and blood pressure and urine test for sugar and proteinThird month: height, weight, the baby's heartbeat, size, shape and height of the uterus
Planning for Pregnancy, Birth and Beyond. Second Edition, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
What to Expect when You're Expecting, Eisenberg