Pregnancy is the term given to the series of events for a childbearing woman from the time of conception until the birth of the child. The term preconception means before pregnancy, prenatal means during pregnancy, and postpartum refers to the weeks immediately following the birth of a child. There are specific exercise guidelines for women in each of these time periods.
PreconceptionIdeally, it is good for any woman to follow a regular exercise routine throughout her life. For women who are considering pregnancy, being in good physical condition before becoming pregnant is important. Being fit helps a woman's body meet the increasing physical demands of carrying a baby. A well-rounded exercise program should consist of aerobic exercise to strengthen the heart and lungs, and muscle toning exercises such as using weights, sit-ups, and push-ups.
Prenatal Moderate physical activity is considered safe and extremely helpful for expectant mothers and their babies. During pregnancy, changes occur to a woman's body. These changes include an increased heart rate at rest, increased circulation and blood volume, decreased blood pressure, increased laxity of joints, and a forward shift in the center of gravity. Exercise during pregnancy helps keep the heart and lungs working well and also strengthens the muscles and joints to make supporting the baby easier and more comfortable.
Prenatal Exercise PrecautionsIt is important for a woman to discuss physical activity at regular visits with her healthcare professional. In general, a pregnant woman should not get overheated and should not exercise to exhaustion.
Pregnant women who are at high risk may need to limit physical activity. A high risk pregnancy is one in which the expectant mother has a medical problem, such as diabetes or high blood pressure; has any genetic problem; or is under 20 or over 35.
A woman should STOP exercising and call her healthcare provider if any of the following occur during exercise: bleedingcrampingdizziness or feeling fainthigh blood pressuresevere joint pain
Types of Prenatal ExerciseThe following four kinds of exercise can be useful during pregnancy: Pregnancy-specific aerobics. Rhythmic and repetitive activities such as walking, bicycling, and swimming are strenuous enough to demand increased oxygen to the muscles, but not so strenuous that oxygen demand exceeds supply. Pregnancy-specific aerobics: increase the ability to process and utilize oxygenimprove blood circulation, which enhances the transportation of oxygen and nutrients to the baby. They also lower the risk of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, and fluid retention.increase muscle tone and strengthrelieve constipation build endurance and staminaburn calories, which helps manage weight gain during pregnancydecrease fatigue promote improved sleepingpromote a feeling of wellbeing and confidence
2. Pregnancy calisthenics, or exercises designed especially for pregnancy. These exercises are rhythmic, light gymnastic movements that tone and develop muscles and can improve posture. Pregnancy calisthenics: tone and develop muscleimprove posturerelieve backacheimprove physical and mental well-beingprepare a woman's body for the task of childbirth
3. Relaxation techniques. Relaxation techniques: help conserve energy for when it is neededassist the mind to focusincrease body awareness
4. Kegel exercises. To do these exercises, contract the vaginal muscles hard, as if to stop the flow of urine. This should be done 10 to 15 times at least 3 times a day. Kegel exercises strengthen the muscles that surround the openings of the urethra, vagina, and anus which can become weak because of the constant pressure of pregnancy.
Do's and Don'tsA good pregnancy exercise program that is built into a woman's daily lifestyle has many benefits. These general exercise guidelines are adapted from the recommendations of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). These guidelines are conservative and may not fit the needs of women who are conditioned athletes. Pregnancy and sports guidelines should be discussed between the woman and her healthcare professional.
Do:Exercise regularly at least 3 times per week.Avoid bouncy movements that snap muscles like rubber bands.Take a pulse rate during peak activity. Keep target heart rate within limits set by the healthcare professional. .Exercise on a wooden floor or heavily carpeted surface to reduce shock and provide sure footing to reduce the risk of a fall.Rise gradually to avoid dizziness from floor exercises.Drink fluids before, during, and after exercise to prevent dehydration.Get adequate calories to meet both the extra needs of pregnancy and the exercise performed.Consult your healthcare professional if any unusual symptoms occur during exercise.
Don't: Don't exercise in hot, humid weather or during any illness if a fever is present.Don't exercise strenuously for longer than 15 minutes at a time.Don't raise body temperature to more than 100.4 degrees F.Don't use exercises that require women to hold their breath or bear down.
PostpartumDaily exercise can help restore muscle tone and return a woman's body to the condition it was before pregnancy, or to an improved condition. Exercise programs should be designed to meet individual needs. Although exercise may seem like an effort, it can actually help new mothers feel less tired. Exercise raises energy level and boosts a woman's general sense of wellbeing. Always check with your healthcare professional before starting an exercise program.
Positive Pregnancy Fitness. Sylvia Klein Olkin
From here to Maternity. Connie Marshall
What to Expect when You're Expecting. Arlene Eisenberg
Planning for Pregnancy, Birth and Beyond The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists