Unconsciousness is defined as a state of unawareness or an inability to respond as a result of reduced brain stem activity.
When an individual is unconscious, he or she is unresponsive and cannot be awakened by shaking, touching, or calling the person's name. The person may move in response to a painful stimulus, but does not wake up.
There are many causes of unconsciousness, or loss of consciousness. It can be caused by illness, injury, or internal bleeding. It can also be the result of excessive alcohol or drug use. Other causes include low blood sugar levels and fainting.
Prevention of unconsciousness focuses on treatment of the underlying problems. Control of blood sugar is required if someone has diabetes. An individual with diabetes should wear an identification bracelet to alert others in case he or she loses consciousness. Excessive alcohol and illegal drugs should be avoided.
Diagnosis of unconsciousness is made when a person will not awaken with gentle rousing. An individual who is unconscious will not be able to cough and may have difficulty breathing. The person will not be able to open his or her eyes and does not respond to stimuli such as touch or pain.
First aid is the treatment that is usually provided when someone is unconscious. Check for signs of circulation, such as normal breathing, coughing, or movement in response to stimulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR.Contact the emergency medical system immediately.If a spinal cord injury is suspected, avoid moving the person except to assist breathing. If the victim is unable to breathe, gently logroll him or her into a position so that rescue breathing can be started.Gently restrain the victim if he or she becomes agitated.Protect the victim from injury if seizures occur.Keep the victim warm.Stay with the victim until medical help arrives.
If the victim is known to have diabetes, from a medical alert bracelet or otherwise, try to get him or her to eat or drink something sweet upon regaining consciousness. Low blood sugar is a much more life-threatening condition than high blood sugar. If the latter is the problem, it can be fixed once the person reaches the hospital.
Rolling a person with a spinal cord injury can worsen the damage. Therefore, it is important to move the victim only as needed to assist with breathing.
The emergency medical system should be contacted immediately so that the person can be transported to the emergency department for care.