A yeast infection of the skin and mucous membranes is caused by
A yeast called Candida albicans is a common and normal inhabitant of the mucosal tissues, such as those of the mouth rectum, and vagina. Sometimes the yeast can overgrow and produce an inflamed rash on skin surfaces such as the diaper area, genital region, under the breasts, or underarms. Candidiasis of the mouth is also called oral thrush.
Signs and symptoms of a yeast infection correspond to the site of the infection: Skin infections cause a red rash, often with patchy areas that ooze small amounts of whitish fluid. The rash may be itchy or burn. Small pustules or white blisters with pus inside may develop.Vaginal yeast infections cause a white or yellow discharge from the vagina, with burning, itching, and redness along the walls and external area of the vagina.A yeast infection of the penis causes redness, scaling, and sometimes pain on the underside of the penis.Oral thrush, which is a yeast infection of the mouth, causes creamy white patches on the tongue and sides of the mouth, and sometimes pain.A yeast infection of the nail beds causes white or yellow nails, painful swelling, and pus
Yeast infections are more common with: use of oral antibioticsuse of steroid medications, such as prednisonediabetes obesity malnutrition excessive sweating crowded or unsanitary living conditionsuse of oral contraceptives poor immune function, such as in people with HIV infection or receiving chemotherapy for cancer
Some yeast infections can be avoided by: taking antibiotics only when prescribedavoiding excessive sweetskeeping skin cool and drywearing cotton underwearTaking showers instead of baths to avoid yeast washing up from rectum into the vaginaAvoid tight fitting clothing (especially synthetics like nylon, etc that do not allow air circulation and trap body heat and moisture)
A healthcare professional may suspect a yeast infection from the distinctive rash, or the thick white pasty residue it generates. The diagnosis can be confirmed with a scraping of the skin or residue that shows the yeast organisms under the microscope.
Treatment is usually successful within 2 weeks, but the infection often comes back. If left untreated, yeast infections can cause sepsis, a life-threatening blood infection.
Yeast infections are mildly contagious from person to person, and from place to place on the same person. A mother with a vaginal yeast infection can pass it on to her newborn during delivery.
Yeast infections are treated with anti-yeast, anti-fungal creams. These include: nystatin (i.e., Mycostatin, Nilstat) or miconazole (i.e., Monistat) cream for infections of the skin, vagina, and penissuppositories (clotrimazole
The skin should be kept dry. Plain talcum powder, or a powder that contains nystatin, can help keep the surface area dry. Corticosteroid ointments may be used to reduce the itching and pain.
Side effects of ointments used to treat yeast infections may include a localized skin reaction.
Treatment of yeast infections is usually successful within 1 to 2 weeks.
Any new or worsening symptoms should be reported to the healthcare professional. A pregnant woman who has a vaginal yeast infection should be monitored in her third trimester, because it can be passed on to her infant during delivery.
Professional Guide to Diseases, Sixth Ed., Springhouse, 1998
The Merck Manual of Medical Information, 1997
Instructions for Patients, HW Griffith, 1994