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Crush Injury

Crush Injury

Alternate Names

  • crush wound

Definition

A crush injury occurs when a body part is caught between 2 or more objects.

Risks

What are the causes and risks of the injury?

Most crush injuries are the results of accidents. A minor crush injury is often not serious. An example of a minor crush injury is getting a finger caught in a door. A crush injury is more serious when it involves a large force, such as a foot being run over by a car. This type of crush injury may damage tissues below the skin, such as blood vessels, nerves, muscles, or bones. The force may cause the skin to crack or scrape off during the injury. A loss of function or blood flow may occur in the area. The tissue damaged by a crush injury is also at increased risk for infection. There may be permanent numbness or deformity of the injured body part. Amputation, or removal of a body part with surgery, may be needed in severe injuries.

Prevention

What can be done to prevent the injury?

Some crush injuries can be avoided with careful use of tools and vehicles. People should not drive or use heavy equipment when they are tired or have been using alcohol or illegal drugs. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is a government organization which works to create a safer environment in work places where many crush injuries occur.

Diagnosed

How is the injury recognized?

A crush injury is recognized based on:
  • a history of trauma
  • swelling of the affected limb
  • bleeding
  • damage to surrounding tissues
  • pain
  • blood collecting under the skin
  • loss of sensation
X-rays and blood tests may be taken to help diagnose the injury.

Treatments

What are the treatments for the injury?

Minor crush injuries can usually be treated at home. Medical treatment is needed for a more serious crush injury. This treatment is needed to prevent loss of function, restore circulation to the injured area, and prevent infection.
The crush injury is cleansed with soap and water. If there is bleeding, pressure is applied to control the bleeding. Ice is applied. An x-ray is required to determine if the bone was damaged.
A tetanus shot (given via the DTaP vaccine) should be given if the person has not had one in the past 10 years. Antibiotics may be given to prevent infection.
A severe injury may need surgery and even removal of the body part.

Side Effects

What are the side effects of the treatments?

The DTaP vaccine may cause pain at the site of the shot. Antibiotics may cause stomach upset, diarrhea, or an allergic reaction. Surgery has a risk of bleeding, infection, and reactions to the anesthesia medication.

After Treatment

What happens after treatment for the injury?

It is important to watch closely for swelling, which is a common problem after a crush injury. Severe swelling can lead to injury of underlying tissue. The affected area should be kept elevated above the level of the heart.

Sources

Professional Guide to Disease, Sixth Edition, 1998 "OSHA's Mission " [hyperLink url="http://www.osha.gov/oshinfo/mission.html" linkTitle="www.osha.gov/oshinfo/mission.html"]www.osha.gov/oshinfo/mission.html[/hyperLink]

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