- migraine without aura
- vascular headaches
What is going on in the body?
What are the causes and risks of the condition?
- bright lights
- certain foods and drinks, such as
caffeine, chocolate, or alcohol head injuryor neck injury
- hormonal changes in women, especially during
- poor sleep habits
- weather changes
What can be done to prevent the condition?
- avoiding his or her personal triggers
- exercising regularly
- any type of medicine, including prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, and
- bright or flickering lights
- changes in the seasons
- changes in the weather
- excessive or repetitive noises
- high altitudes
- specific smells
- any pickled, fermented, or marinated food
- broad beans, lima beans, fava beans, and snow peas
caffeinatedbeverages, such as tea, coffee, and colas
- chicken liver or pate
- citrus foods and drinks
- figs, raisins, papayas, avocados, and red plums
- foods or beverages that contain aspartame and phenylalanine
- freshly baked yeast products
- meats that may contain nitrates, such as bacon, sausage, bologna, salami, pepperoni, summer sausage, or hot dogs
- monosodium glutamate, also known as MSG, which is found in meat tenderizers, seasoned salt, and soy sauces
- nuts or nut butters
- pickled or dried herring
- ripened or aged cheeses, including cheddar, Emmenthaler (Swiss), Stilton, Brie, and Camembert
- sour cream
- sourdough bread
- anticonvulsants, such as gabapentin (i.e., Neurontin),carbamazepine (i.e., Tegretol), topiramate (i.e., Topamax) and valproic acid (i.e., Depakote, Depakene)
- beta-blockers, such as atenolol (i.e., Tenormin) and propranolol (i.e., Inderal, InnoPran)
- calcium channel blockers, such as diltiazem (i.e., Cardizem, Tiazac, Dilacor) and verapamil (i.e., Calan, Covera, Verelan)
- lithium carbonate
- methysergide maleate (i.e., Sansert) and methylergonovine maleate (i.e., Methergine)
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen (i.e., Advil, Motrin) and naproxen sodium (i.e., Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn)
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including paroxetine ( i.e., Paxil)and fluoxetine HCl (i.e., Prozac)
- tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline (i.e., Elavil) and nortriptyline (i.e., Pamelor)
- other antidepressants, such as trazodone (i.e., Desyrel) and venlafaxine ( i.e., Effexor)
How is the condition diagnosed?
- at least five headache episodes, each lasting 4 to 72 hours
nauseaor sensitivity to light and sounds
- at least two of the following: one-sided pain, pulsing pain, moderate or severe pain, or pain aggravated by physical activity
biopsyof the arteries in the head. In this test, a doctor collects a small sample of the artery and examines it under a microscope.
cranial CT scan, which is an examination of the head using a special three-dimensional X-ray
cranial MRI, which is a special three-dimensional image made using a magnetic field
electroencephalogram, also called an EEG, which is a recording of brain waves
electromyogram, also called an EMG. This test is a recording of the electrical activity of selected muscle groups.
- skull X-rays
spinal tap, where a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid is removed from the spine using a thin needle
- testing of levels of certain drugs or toxins in the blood
Long Term Effects
What are the long-term effects of the condition?
What are the risks to others?
What are the treatments for the condition?
- anticonvulsants such as valproic acid (i.e., Depakene), divalproex (i.e., Depakote) and topiramate (i.e., Topamax)
- beta-blockers such as propranolol (i.e., Inderal), atenolol (i.e., Tenormin), timolol (i.e., Blocadren), metoprolol (i.e., Lopressor) and nadolol (i.e., Corgard)
- calcium channel blockers such as verapamil (i.e., Calan, Isoptin)
- cyproheptadine (i.e., Periactin)
- tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline (i.e., Elavil) and nortriptyline (i.e., Pamelor)
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs called NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen (i.e., Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (i.e., Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn)
- barbiturate combinations, such as butalbital with caffeine and acetaminophen (i.e., Fiorcet)
- ergot alkaloids and derivatives, such as ergotamine (i.e., Ergomar, Cafergot, Bellamine) and dihydroergotamine mesylate as a shot (i.e., DHE 45) or nasal spray (i.e., Migranal)
- isometheptene agents, with combinations of isometheptene (i.e., Midrin, Duradin, Migquin)
- narcotic analgesics, such as codeine and butorphanol (i.e., Stadol)
- pain medicines, such as ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®) and acetaminophen (Tylenol®)
- 5-HT-1 agonists (called triptans), such as sumatriptan (i.e., Imitrex as tablets, nasal spray or self-administered injection), zolmitriptan (i.e., Zomig), naratriptan (i.e., Amerge), rizatriptan (i.e., Maxalt), almotriptan (i.e., Axert), frovatriptan (i.e., Frova) or eletriptan (i.e., Relpax)
- acupuncture, a therapy used to relieve pain by inserting thin needles into certain parts of the body
- aromatherapy, which uses oils to stimulate pleasant sensations and relieve stress
- biofeedback, a process in which a person is taught how to relax when the body starts to show the signs of a headache
- chiropractic, which involves manipulation of the spinal bones
- cognitive-behavioral therapy, which helps a person change perceptions and behaviors related to the headache
- herbal remedies (see list below)
- hypnosis, which uses suggestion to influence the person's subconscious
- relaxation training, which reduces stress and eases emotional strain
- stress management
- transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, or TENS, which relieves pain by stimulating nerves
What are the side effects of the treatments?
What happens after treatment for the condition?
How is the condition monitored?