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- a decrease of strength or endurance
- the presence of pain or discomfort
- impaired ability to recognize familiar surroundings
- depression or severe anxiety
- impaired ability to use the muscles. This impaired ability may be from nervous system problems or from problems with the muscles or bones.
- cerebral palsy, which is caused by a brain injury that occurs during pregnancy, during birth, or after birth before the age of 5.
- head injury
- muscular dystrophy. This is an inherited muscle disorder that leads to muscle weakness.
- multiple sclerosis. This is a disorder in which the nerves of the eye, brain, and spinal cord are affected.
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease. This is a progressive disorder of the nervous system leading to muscle weakness and spasticity.
- Parkinson's disease, a slowly progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system.
- stroke. This is the death of brain tissue due to lack of blood flow and insufficient oxygen to the brain.
- arthritis, the inflammation of one or more joints
- amputation of a body part
- spinal cord injury
- severe burns
- brain tumor
- developmental disabilities such as Down syndrome
- autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome
- fractures of the limbs
- blindness or other visual impairment
- old age
Rehabilitation Nursing: Concepts and Practice (1987). Evanston, IL: Rehabilitation Nursing Foundation Hoeman, Shirley P (1996). Rehabilitation Nursing, Process and Application. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.