What is the information for this topic?
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen are all NSAIDs.
- anticonvulsants, which can relieve chronic nerve pain. Examples include phenytoin (i.e. Dilantin), carbamazepine (i.e. Tegretol), and gabapentin (i.e. Neurontin).
- antidepressants, which may relieve certain kinds of chronic pain. Common antidepressants include amitriptyline (i.e. Elavil), trazodone (i.e. Desyrel), and imipramine (i.e. Tofranil).
- capsaicin, a cream that can relieve skin pain caused by shingles, nerve problems, and other causes
- corticosteroids, such as prednisone, which can relieve pain from inflammation
- Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors such as celecoxib (i.e. Celebrex) and meloxicam (i.e. Mobic) are helpful for inflammatory pain such as from arthritis.
- narcotics, which are the most effective for moderate to severe pain. Common narcotics include morphine (i.e. Avinza, MS Contin), codeine, meperidine (i.e. Demerol), oxycodone (i.e. OxyContin), hydromorphone (i.e. Dilaudid) and methadone.
- sumatriptan (i.e. Imitrex) and naratriptan (i.e. Amerge), which can relieve the pain of a migraine headache
- tramadol (i.e. Ultram), which is used mainly for chronic pain
- stomach upset, gastrointestinal bleeding and kidney failure are potential side effects of NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors
- liver damage with high doses of acetaminophen, especially when it is used for long periods of time
- diabetes, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infection with long-term use of corticosteroids
- dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea with tramadol
- drowsiness and confusion with anticonvulsants, especially within the first 2 weeks of starting the medicine
- drowsiness, nausea, constipation, itchiness, urinary hesitancy and potential addiction with narcotics. Patients taking narcotics for more than 2 weeks may experience withdrawal if the narcotic dose is not gradually tapered.
- dry mouth, drowsiness, and constipation with antidepressants
- rarely, increased blood pressure with sumatriptan and naratriptan