What is going on in the body?
- changes in kidney hormone levels, which cause water retention and weight gain
- deficiencies of minerals, such as calcium
- deficiencies of vitamins A, B6, and E
- dietary changes, such as high levels of sodium and simple sugars
- higher levels of estrogen, a female hormone
- higher levels of prostaglandins, which produce inflammation
- lower levels of endorphins, which are a part of the nervous system that naturally make a person feel more positive or euphoric
- lower levels of progesterone, a female hormone
- lower levels of serotonin, a hormone that influences mood
What are the causes and risks of the condition?
What can be done to prevent the condition?
- Eat a healthy diet that limits foods that are high in sodium, fat, caffeine, alcohol, and simple sugars.
- Get aerobic exercise on a regular basis.
- Get enough vitamins and minerals, especially calcium and magnesium.
- Use relaxation therapy and other stress management techniques.
How is the condition diagnosed?
- absence of other disorders that may cause similar symptoms
- impairment of some part of the woman's life
- symptoms consistent with PMS that are restricted to the last 2 weeks of the menstrual cycle
Long Term Effects
What are the long-term effects of the condition?
What are the risks to others?
What are the treatments for the condition?
- a diet high in complex carbohydrates, or starches, and lower in simple sugars
- nutritional supplements, such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamins E, B complex, and B6
- regular aerobic exercise
- stress reduction techniques, such as meditation and imagery
- antidepressant medicines, such as fluoxetine (i.e., Prozac, Sarafem) that increase serotonin production
- benzodiazepine medicines, such as alprazolam (i.e., Niravam, Xanax) that lower anxiety
- danazol (i.e., Danocrine), a modified male hormone, which can decrease breast pain
- diuretics, such as spironolactone (i.e., Aldactone) and metolazone (i.e., Zaroxolyn), which help the body excrete excess water and salts
- hormones, such as nafarelin (i.e., Synarel) and leuprolide (i.e., Lupron), which block the release of eggs from the ovaries
- medicines that affect high prostaglandin levels, such as mefenamic acid (i.e., Ponstel), ibuprofen (i.e., Motrin, Advil), and naproxen (i.e., Naprosyn)
What are the side effects of the treatments?
What happens after treatment for the condition?
How is the condition monitored?