- routine urine test
- urine appearance and color
How is the test performed?
What is involved in preparation for the test?
What do the test results mean?
- color: varies from colorless to dark yellow. Certain foods may stain it.
- specific gravity: ranges from 1.006 to 1.030. The higher the number, the more concentrated the urine. The urine osmolality is a better test.
- pH, or relative acidity or alkalinity: ranges from 4.6 to 8.0. The average is 6.0, which is slightly acidic.
- sugars, ketones, and proteins: None present.
- blood: no red blood cells or hemoglobin are present.
- bilirubin: none.
- white blood cells: none.
- color: reddish suggesting blood or cloudy suggesting infection..
- specific gravity: depends on when the specimen was collected. Early morning urine should be concentrated (1.014 or more). Low morning specimens may indicate kidney disorders.
- pH: overly alkaline urine (close to 8 or above) may suggest a bacterial infection. This warrants medical attention.
- sugar and ketones, usually tested together: high levels of glucose and ketones may indicate diabetes.
- protein: any present may indicate kidney disorders.
- blood: any present may indicate bleeding from the kidney or surrounding structures, a urinary tract infection, or trauma from rigorous exercise.
- bilirubin: may indicate blood, liver or bile duct disease.
- nitrites and white blood cells: their presence may indicate a urinary tract infection.