- ocular migraine
What is going on in the body?
What are the causes and risks of the condition?
- certain foods, including chocolate and some cheeses
- change in hormone levels
fatigue food additives
- foods containing tyramine, such as red wine and organ meats
- light or noise
- too much or too little sleep
- weather changes
What can be done to prevent the condition?
- anticonvulsants, such as gabapentin (i.e., Neurontin),carbamazepine (i.e., Tegretol), topiramate (i.e., Topamax) and valproic acid (i.e., Depakote, Depakene)
- beta-blockers, such as atenolol (i.e., Tenormin) and propranolol (i.e., Inderal, InnoPran)
- calcium channel blockers, such as diltiazem (i.e., Cardizem, Tiazac, Dilacor) and verapamil (i.e., Calan, Covera, Verelan)
- lithium carbonate
- methysergide maleate (i.e., Sansert) and methylergonovine maleate (i.e., Methergine)
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen (i.e., Advil, Motrin) and naproxen sodium (i.e., Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn)
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including paroxetine ( i.e., Paxil)and fluoxetine HCl (i.e., Prozac)
- tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline (i.e., Elavil) and nortriptyline (i.e., Pamelor)
- other antidepressants, such as trazodone (i.e., Desyrel) and venlafaxine ( i.e., Effexor)
How is the condition diagnosed?
Long Term Effects
What are the long-term effects of the condition?
What are the risks to others?
What are the treatments for the condition?
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs called NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen (i.e., Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (i.e., Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn)
- barbiturate combinations, such as butalbital with caffeine and acetaminophen (i.e., Fiorcet)
- ergot alkaloids and derivatives, such as ergotamine (i.e., Ergomar, Cafergot, Bellamine) and dihydroergotamine mesylate as a shot (i.e., DHE 45) or nasal spray (i.e., Migranal)
- isometheptene agents, with combinations of isometheptene (i.e., Midrin, Duradin, Migquin)
- narcotic analgesics, such as codeine and butorphanol (i.e., Stadol)
- pain medicines, such as ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®) and acetaminophen (Tylenol®)
- 5-HT-1 agonists (called triptans), such as sumatriptan (i.e., Imitrex as tablets, nasal spray or self-administered injection), zolmitriptan (i.e., Zomig), naratriptan (i.e., Amerge), rizatriptan (i.e., Maxalt), almotriptan (i.e., Axert), frovatriptan (i.e., Frova) or eletriptan (i.e., Relpax)
acupuncture, a therapy used to relieve pain by putting thin needles into certain parts of the body
- aromatherapy, which uses oils to stimulate pleasant sensations and relieve stress
biofeedback, a process in which a person is taught how to relax when the body starts to show the signs of a headache chiropractic,which involves manipulation of the spinal bones cognitive-behavioral therapy, which helps a person change perceptions and behaviors related to the headache
herbal remedies hypnosis, which uses suggestion to affect the person's subconscious
- relaxation training, which reduces stress and eases emotional strain
- transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, or TENS, which relieves pain by stimulating nerves
What are the side effects of the treatments?
What happens after treatment for the condition?
How is the condition monitored?
Ophthalmoplegic Migraine Fact Sheet, Ocular Migraine Fact Sheet, Migraine Fact Sheet, NHF HeadLines Newsletter [July August of 1999-Number 110], National Headache Foundation, 428 W. St. James Place, 2nd Floor, Chicago, IL 60614-2750
Headaches, Mayo Clinic Family Health Disc, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research