Pelvic Pain In Females
Pelvic Pain In Females
- lower abdominal pain
- abdominal cramping
What is going on in the body?
What are the causes and risks of the condition?
- pelvic adhesions, which are fibrous bands holding parts together that are usually separate
- endometriosis, a disorder in which patches of endometrial tissue (normally found only in the lining of the uterus) grow outside the uterus particularly on other pelvic organs
- peritonitis, an inflammation usually caused by an infection of the lining of the abdomen
- urinary tract infection
- hernia, or a bulging of internal organs or tissues through an abnormal opening in the muscle wall
- menstrual cramping
- Mittelschmerz, which is pain in the middle of the menstrual cycle caused by ovulation
- ectopic pregnancy, a pregnancy in which the fetus develops outside of the uterus
- twisted ovary
- ovarian cysts
- uterine fibroid, a non-cancerous growth that occurs in the wall of the uterus
- colon cancer or ovarian cancer
- diverticulosis, a saclike protrusion of any part of the digestive tract, usually in the large intestine
- irritable bowel syndrome
- gastroenteritis, a general term for a group of conditions caused by infection in the digestive tract
- kidney stones
- abscess, or an accumulation of pus usually caused by a bacterial infection
- pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and adjacent pelvic structures. PID is commonly caused by a sexually transmitted infection that has not been treated quickly and effectively.
- appendicitis, or inflammation of the appendix
- musculoskeletal disorders, such as a misalignment or shifting of the pelvic bones
- psychological factors, such as stress
What can be done to prevent the condition?
- using condoms to decrease the risk of sexually transmitted infections and secondary pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
- seeking early treatment for infections of the genital tract, such as PID
- oral birth control pills, which may reduce the risk of pelvic pain associated with painful ovulation and menses
- drinking plenty of fluids every day and avoiding dehydration to prevent kidney stones
How is the condition diagnosed?
- a urinalysis and a urine culture to rule out any kidney or bladder disorders, such as an infection or kidney stones
- blood tests, which may include a complete blood count or CBC, to check for infection
- a pregnancy test
- a pelvic exam to help determine which organs are affected and whether an infection is present
- other types of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI scans
Long Term Effects
What are the long-term effects of the condition?
What are the risks to others?
What are the treatments for the condition?
- advice about appropriate diet and exercise
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (i.e., Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (i.e., Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn)
- pain medication
- birth contol pills to stop pain caused by ovulation
- relaxation exercises
- physical therapy
What are the side effects of the treatments?
What happens after treatment for the condition?
How is the condition monitored?
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 1998, Fauci et al.
The Merck Manual of Medical Information, 1997
Professional Guide to Diseases: 6th edition, 1998