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Alternate Names

  • confinement
  • expecting
  • childbearing


Pregnancy can be described as the growth and development of one or more children in the uterus of a woman.

What is the information for this topic?

Pregnancy is a very complex topic. This section is an overview of the three stages of pregnancy.
Stage I: Before pregnancy
Preconception care. The health of the mother and father before conception occurs is as important as the woman's health during pregnancy. Lifestyle habits, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, drug abuse or addiction, and using certain medications, can all interfere with normal growth.
Healthy habits can help promote growth. It is a good idea to schedule a preconceptional visit with a healthcare provider. During this visit, questions will be asked about the woman's health and lifestyle and often those of her partner, too.
The healthcare giver will discuss pregnancy risk factors. These questions include:
  • family and medical histories
  • a history of any medications taken
  • diet
  • lifestyle issues
  • the course of any past pregnancies
Stage II: During pregnancy
Conception (or fertilization). A finely-tuned sequence of events must take place for pregnancy to occur. A woman's fertility depends on a healthy menstrual cycle. A basic knowledge of how reproduction works will help a woman know the days of the month when she is the most fertile - in other words, when she is most likely to get pregnant. It will also explain the rapid changes that take place during early pregnancy.

Early signs of pregnancy. One of the first signs of pregnancy that many women notice is a missed menstrual period. However, not all women have regular periods. Menstrual periods can be affected by stress or illness.

Therefore, it is wise to watch for a number of other signs and symptoms of pregnancy, such as:
  • light spotting of blood
  • tender breasts
  • tiredness
  • nausea (can occur during the morning, noon time, evening or all day)
  • a need to urinate often
  • food cravings
  • darkening of the line between the navel and the nipple
Diagnosis of Pregnancy. Pregnancy can be confirmed by the time a period is missed. During early pregnancy, HCG, a hormone that is made by the growing baby is in the mother's blood and urine. While home tests for pregnancy work fairly well, very accurate tests can be done by a healthcare provider.
Growth and development. During pregnancy, the baby grows in the mother's uterus, which is a muscular organ located between the bladder and the rectum. The lining of the uterus (the endometrium) thickens and its blood vessels enlarge to nourish the growing baby. The placenta is the channel through which oxygen, nutrients, and other substances pass from mother to baby.
The process of growth and development has three phases called trimesters.
  • weeks 0 through 13, known as the first trimester
  • weeks 14 through 27, known as the second trimester
  • weeks 28 through 40, known as the third trimester
Stage III: After birth
Being a new parent is exciting and demanding. It causes major changes in life. There are changes in a woman's body, her emotions, her relationships and how she lives. Being aware of what is happening both physically and emotionally can prepare a woman to better face the ups and downs of the first few months after a baby is born.
Taking care of physical, mental/emotional, relational and spiritual well-being is a key factor. Many issues surface at this time, including:
  • work
  • well-child care
  • parenting
  • family relationships
  • family planning
Two to 6 weeks after the birth of the baby, a woman should visit a healthcare provider to:
  • learn how well her body has recovered from the changes of pregnancy and birth
  • discuss any questions or concerns about birth control, sex, or emotions
  • jave her newborn begin well-child care


Planning for Pregnancy, Birth and Beyond. Second Edition, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

What to Expect when You're Expecting, Eisenberg

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